Sigmoidoscopy is considered to be a reliable and safe diagnostic method. It allows the doctor to obtain a large amount of information about the state of the sigmoid and rectum, as well as the anus. The practice is conducted using a flexible probe with an illuminator and a video camera at the end.

The colon has a length of about one and a half meters and consists of several sections - the cecum with the vermiform process, the colon and sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon (colon sigmoideum) has two bends that give this part of the intestine a resemblance to the Greek letter "sigma" ("ς"). The sigmoid colon passes into the rectum (rectum), which in turn ends with the anus or anus.

Sigmoidoscopy is used in cases where there is a suspicion of a lesion in the terminal part of the large intestine, i.e. sigmoid and rectum, as well as the anus. Most often, it is used to determine the cause and exact localization of bleeding, ulcers, fistulas, polyps, diverticula, determine the causes of abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea, inflammation of the mucous membrane, detection of foreign bodies.

This practice is also very informative if there are suspected neoplasms in the terminal parts of the gastrointestinal tract. In the process of examining the intestinal walls, a biopsy (sampling) of tissues for the histological examination can be performed. In addition, during the diagnosis, it is possible to perform therapeutic practice, for example, coagulation of tissues, removal of small neoplasms, the introduction of drugs into the intestinal lumen. It is worth saying that endosurgical treatment methods are now used quite often due to their low invasiveness and wide capabilities.

In some cases, general anesthesia is used. Sigmoidoscopy is painless due to prior local anesthesia of the examined area. The depth of insertion of the probe is usually limited to 30-35 cm, but if necessary, with the help of a sigmoidoscope it is possible to investigate more distant parts of the intestine, up to the left (splenic) angle of the colon. To improve imaging conditions, a small amount of gas is injected into the intestinal lumen, which stretches the intestinal walls and makes natural intestinal folds available for inspection.

Due to the high reliability of this practice and the absence of contraindications, sigmoidoscopy is included in the list of mandatory preventive procedures that allow timely detection of various tumors and polyps in the rectum and sigmoid colon. However, the procedure should always use well-maintained sigmoidoscopes

Does sigmoidoscopy hurt?

Sigmoidoscopy is actually painful, according to reviews and comments from the patient after the procedure. It is worth noting that during tool insertion in the rectum, the patient will experience discomfort. That is why, to facilitate the progress of the practice, many experts prefer immersing the patient in a state of drug sleep.

This method of the examination allows you to achieve the effect of delicate anesthesia without significant inhibition of all systems of the human body. Medication sleep caused by sedation will last no more than 30-40 minutes. This time will be more than enough to complete a completely painless examination of the patient's rectum.

bronchoscope

A bronchoscope is a special optical medical device used to study the respiratory tract (lungs and bronchi). It looks like a tube with an optical and lighting system. The design of the bronchoscope allows you to enter drugs, remove mucus and blood, foreign bodies. In order to do a biopsy, special handling tools are placed in the device. The camera work is coordinated and digitized, so the course of the procedure is immediately displayed on the monitor.

Types of bronchoscopes

There are two types of bronchoscopes: rigid and flexible. Let us understand the features of the application of each type.

FLEXIBLE BRONCHOSCOPE

Flexible bronchoscopy is also called fibrobronchoscope. Flexible bronchoscope consists of a tube with an optical part and a light guide. At the input end, there is a camera, and on the outside, there is a special handle for controlling the device. The visual and viewing tube is flexible and smooth. The diameter is about 3.6-6.6 mm. If the pediatric bronchoscope, the cross-section of the tube is even smaller - 1.8 mm. The length in adult and child models up to 60 cm.

Features of the use of a fibrobronchoscope:

  • examinations and manipulations are carried out under local anesthesia, the patient is conscious;
  • has less trauma compared to a hard bronchoscope;
  • it can even penetrate the lower parts of the bronchial tree;
  • widely used in pediatric practice and has the least number of complications.

Some difficulties in carrying out the procedure may arise from the fact that the patient is conscious and is afraid of future examination. Despite the fact that the practices are less traumatic, complications do occur. With the rough application of the equipment, nosebleeds may occur. Biopsy also causes minor bleeding episodes that are easy to handle.

When performing a more complex procedure such as transbronchial lung biopsy, the consequences may not be limited to weak bleeding. In severe cases, pneumothorax occurs. It can either resolve itself or require additional intervention.

Patients may have various side effects when applying local anesthesia. In this case, the procedure is performed under total anesthesia.

HARD BRONCHOSCOPE

In another way, it is called rigid. A rigid bronchoscope is a solid tube with an optical and video system at one end and a manipulator at the other. The diameter is about 5-15 mm.

Features of the application of a rigid bronchoscope:

  • the procedure becomes extremely traumatic;
  • examination and manipulation are carried out only under general anesthesia;
  • suitable for removing large foreign items from the bronchus;
  • used in case of extensive bleeding;
  • for more precise application in the small bronchi, a fibrobronchoscope can be inserted;
  • it is useful when conducting resuscitation in case of liquid accumulation in the lungs;
  • when pathology is detected, it allows you to immediately perform a biopsy or complete removal of the altered tissue.

Complications of rigid bronchoscopy:

  • perforation of the bronchi;
  • aspiration of stomach contents;
  • bleeding due to coarse procedure or extensive biopsy.

Usually, many complications exist due to the use of general anesthesia with insufficient premedication or an incorrect dose of anesthetic applied.

Most popular models

In the world, there are several companies that produce endoscopic equipment used everywhere. They are characterized by a large selection of products, best quality, and extensive experience in the development of medical equipment.

Leading endoscopes manufactures are:

  • Olympus (Japan);
  • Everest VIT (USA);
  • Pentax (Japan);
  • Karl Storz (Germany);
  • Saraya Co. (Japan);

Moreover, Optimed also deserves special attention. The company, founded in St. Petersburg and has extensive experience in the production of endoscopic equipment.

The choice of a bronchoscope depends on the individual characteristics of the patient and the purpose of the bronchoscopy. The preference is usually given to the fibrobronchoscope and only in severe cases, when a flexible bronchoscope is not enough, a rigid one is used.

Like all medical studies, digestive endoscopy also requires certain precautions and considerations to make it runs well. The endoscopist, and in part the anesthesiologist, are the general practitioners within the endoscopy room. Therefore, they must know everything about the patient and their overall health status before the start of the practice.

Other important factors include the age, body weight, medication received, hours of fasting, etc., as well as the type of endoscope that will take place.

In the pre-anesthesia consultation, an interrogation is carried out. It can be a brief physical examination, and the complementary studies and meetings necessary to perform the endoscopy without fright are reviewed.

Not all pre-anesthetic evaluations are done outside the endoscopy room or the operating room. Sometimes, they are performed directly inside before sedation begins.

This assessment of the patient allows facing the endoscopic procedure in the best possible conditions for each case. As a general rule, it is possible to advance a series of precautions before attending the study.

#1 Diets

It is essential that the digestive tract be free of food debris. It is to improve the visualization of the internal lining and to avoid eventual vomiting of the patient.

The video endoscope can only correctly capture the images of the digestive tract with the condition that it is empty and clean. Otherwise, the study could be difficult.

The patient is strongly requested:

  • Drink clear liquids in abundance (water, tea or very light coffee, defatted broths, gelatin, moisturizers without dyes, filtered fruit juices) during the days before endoscopy
  • Go on an absolute fast (which means that the patient should not ingest even water)

#2 Medicines

It is essential that the patient reports all the medications he uses, either periodically, temporarily or eventually.

  • If the patient has diabetes and uses insulin or oral medication, he should remember that he will be fasting for several hours. It is prudent not to use these drugs until after the endoscopy has been completed.
  • If a patient takes acetylsalicylic acid - aspirin in any of its presentations - daily or sporadically, it is essential that the endoscopist knows.
  • If a patient is given antibiotics (for example, to undergo dental procedures), the patient should inform them before performing the endoscopy.
  • If a patient is taking anticoagulants (for example, acenocoumarol, heparin or warfarin), the patient must go to the hematologist to receive instructions at least one week before the date of the endoscopy shift.
  • The patient is often asked only to stop taking medications that affect blood clotting or to interact with the sedatives. Sometimes, it requires a consultation with the professionals who indicated the medication.

#3 Allergies

It is essential that the patient reports on any allergy to medications and medical conditions such as heart or lung diseases and the presence of dental prostheses. It is essential for endoscopist and anesthesiologist on duty to know if the patient suffers from any drug allergy. This is to prevent an autoimmune shock.

The adverse reactions can range from irritation, or mild side effects (such as nausea and vomiting), to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Most pharmacological allergies cause minor side effects. However, it is desirable that they do not occur during an endoscopic procedure.

The most common allergy-causing drugs are usually:

  • the anticonvulsants
  • insulin
  • contrast media for iodinated X-rays
  • penicillin and related antibiotics
  • sulfonamides
  • certain anesthetics

Some adverse reactions to drugs are considered "idiosyncratic,". It is an unusual effect of the drug on the person.

It is advisable for the patient to plan the activity before and after the endoscopy to avoid surprises and setbacks. Moreover, having quality endoscopy tools are essential. If you are endoscopist or medical practitioners looking for endoscopes, feel free to check our catalog of quality refurbished endoscopy equipment. With us, you will get the best quality endoscopes with the best price on the market.

Gastroscopy is a scan that allows direct visualization of the upper part of the digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, and duodenum), using a thin flexible tube.

 

In addition to being a diagnostic method, gastroscopy has an essential therapeutic aspect.

 

Through the endoscope channel, we can pass a variety of instruments, which allows acting on various injuries: dilation of stenotic (narrow) areas, removal of polyps, removal of foreign bodies, treatment of hemorrhage foci, etc.

 

This makes it possible to avoid or reduce the need for transfusions and the use of surgery in a large number of patients.

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