Endoscopy is a term used to describe a procedure during which an endoscopic surgeon inserts a device that consists of a long flexible tube with a camera affixed the end into the interior of the body of the patient for the purpose of viewing, operating on, or diagnosing a vast number of various conditions. While there are numerous specializations when discussing endoscopy, some procedures are much more common than others. Some of the most common types of endoscopic procedures are listed here for reference. These include colonoscopy, upper GI endoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and liver biopsy.

Colonoscopy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's colon. The endoscope is inserted through the anus, and allows access to the lining of the large bowel, part of the small intestine, and the end of the GI tract (the rectum). Colonoscopy can detect and sometimes treat polyps, colorectal bleeding, fissures, strictures, fistulas, foreign bodies, Crohn's Disease, and colorectal cancer.

Upper GI Endoscopy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's esophagus, stomach and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). Upper endoscopy allows for evaluating symptoms of persistent upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or difficulty swallowing. It is the best test for finding the cause of bleeding from the upper GI tract and is also more accurate than X-rays for detecting inflammation, ulcers and tumors of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Upper endoscopy may also be used to obtain small tissue samples (biopsies).

Flexible Sigmoidoscopy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's rectum and a portion of the colon (large intestine).
This procedure evaluates only the lower third of the colon. Flexible sigmoidoscopy can be used to detect and sometimes treat rectal bleeding, persistent diarrhea, pain, colon cancer, and abnormalities that may appear on X-rays, fissures, strictures, fistulas, foreign bodies, colorectal cancer, and benign and malignant lesions.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography - Also known as ERCP, this procedure is used to diagnose disorders of the pancreas, bile duct, liver, and gallbladder. ERCP may help treat gallstones or other blockages, where stenting or sphincterotomy to open the bile duct is necessary. An endoscope is passed through the mouth, beyond the stomach and into the small intestine (duodenum).

Liver Biopsy - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's liver, for the purpose of obtaining a biopsy of liver tissue.

Endoscopic Ultrasound - This procedure is a visual examination of the patient's lining and wall of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, or colon. The ultrasound component produces sound waves that create visual images of the digestive tract which extend beyond the inner surface lining and also allows visualization of adjacent organs. EUS can also be used to diagnose diseases of the pancreas, bile duct and gallbladder when other tests are inconclusive, and it can be used to determine the stage of cancers. EUS provides a minimally invasive method for acquiring tissue samples from gastrointestinal tumors and lymph nodes that may not be easily accessible by other methods such as radiographic or surgical guidance.

Endoscopy has many different applications, in a wide variety of surgical fields, and in addition to common medical procedures, it can play an important role in plastic surgery as well. Endoscopy is a term used for the process of a using a medical device known as an endoscope. An endoscope is composed of a semirigid or flexible tube with an attached camera and light source and a channel which allows insertion of sampling devices such as forceps, or other surgical instruments. It is used for viewing internal areas of the body, diagnosing conditions or aquiring tissue samples, and in some cases performing corrective surgeries.

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M.D. Endoscopy

As the industry leader of pre-owned, refurbished and used endoscopy equipment, M.D. Endoscopy, Inc. offers one of the largest inventories of endoscopes in the world. We offer products from all major manufacturers including but not limited to Olympus, Pentax and Fujinon with the only and most comprehensive 24-month warranty in the industry.

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